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Old 07-18-2008
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Default CP3 FCA and COV Description and Operation

Posted by imacumminz,


The COV is located on the front cover of the high pressure pump.
The Cascade Overflow Valve has three functions:
- regulation of lubrication fuel to the internal moving parts of the high-pressure pump
- regulation of the fuel pressure being supplied to the Fuel Control Actuator solenoid valve
- return excess fuel to the fuel tank
This regulated internal pressure is known as housing pressure, and is determined by engine displacement and power requirements - the 5.9L CRD requires 5-12.4 bar (80-180 psi)
For comparison, the 2.8L 4-cyl Jeep CRD requires 5bar (73psi)

The COV has a spring-loaded center spool-piece that has a drilled channel with three passages: one for initial low-pressure lubrication, one for lubrication at housing-pressure , and one for overflow. The valve is operated in three stages based on the level of pressure at the inlet.

Stage 1
When the fuel pressure entering the tip of the COV is between 0 and 3 bar (43psi), pressure is too low to overcome regulator spring tension and fuel flows through the center channel, only . This passage always allows fuel flow through to the pump center-ring and lubricates the pump bushings and internal moving parts. This circuit also allows air to bleed during initial cranking and returns the air to the fuel tank.
The COV is in Stage 1 during cranking, only.

Stage 2
When the fuel entering the COV exceeds 5bar (73psi), but is less than 12.4bar (180psi), the spool-piece moves against spring tension aligning a second passage for lubrication purposes.
Stage 2 can be reached during cranking and initial start up.

Stage 3
When fuel pressure exceeds 12.4bar (180psi), the spool-piece aligns with the overflow passage. This stage relieves the pressure into an overflow circuit that sends the fuel back to the inlet side of the gearotor pump, thus limiting maximum fuel pressure to 12.4bar (180psi).
Lubrication fuel continues to flow through all channeled passages during this stage.
Excess fuel is sent back to the fuel tank through the fuel-return circuit
Stage 3 is reached at over-pressure


The Fuel Control Actuator solenoid valve is located on the back of the front cover of the high-pressure pump. The solenoid is pulse-width modulated by the ECM and meters the amount of fuel that flows into the high-pressure elements inside the high-pressure pump.
The solenoid is inactive up to 30 seconds after IGNition switch is initially keyed to ON position to allow maximum fuel pressure to the fuel rail during cranking and start up. ECM assumes FCA valve control when CPS signal and rail pressure are within acceptable limits

The Fuel Control Actuator solenoid valve is a pulse-width modulated valve that controls the amount of fuel sent or delayed to the high-pressure pump elements inside the high-pressure pump. The ECM determines the fuel pressure set point based on engine sensor and rail-pressure inputs. If the actual fuel-rail pressure is too low, the ECM commands the solenoid to allow more fuel to flow to the high-pressure pump. This minimizes the difference between the actual fuel-rail pressure reading and the set point. The ECM will also operate the solenoid to delay fuel, reducing flow-rate, if the fuel-rail pressure becomes too high.
The FCA valve is commanded open by the ECM to allow the high-pressure pump to build maximum pressure (1600bar, 23,206psi).
Thus, rail fuel-pressure can be increased or decreased independent of engine speed

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